This blog post explains the Onigraph core network architecture and how it differs from other L0s, L1s, L2s in the Crypto space.
One question we are asked frequently is how the Onigraph core network differs from other L0s, L1s, L2s in the Crypto space. Today we’d like to surface the information in ONINO’s business whitepaper and explain the architecture using the most simple and understandable terms.
The Onigraph is a new type of blockchain infrastructure designed to enable real-world applications of distributed ledger technology (DLT; also known as “blockchain”) by providing a comprehensive and scalable architecture. It is built on a unique combination of a multi-layer Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) and blockchain technology, which ensures privacy, identity, scalability, accessibility, and usability.
The architecture of the Onigraph consists of four distinct layers that serve different purposes.
- Application Layer and Transaction Layer are instances of individual application layers that can host multiple decentralized applications (dApps) enabled through the modularity of our base protocol
- Privacy Enforcement Layer is used to protect sensitive information before submitting transactions into the pool for consensus
- Ordering Layer performs Proof of Adaptive Coverage to reach an efficient total order of transactions submitted from the pre validated mempool
- Identity State Layer is used to store identity states and update them once they are confirmed, an evolution to account systems used in more traditional blockchains
The Onigraph's key design choices are tailored to enable large-scale applications to run on the network and provide value for developers, users, and enterprises.
To achieve a high level of throughput and horizontal scalability, developers can build their own sharded instances of the Transaction Layer as native Layer-1s on top of the Onigraph's Layer-0 protocol. This modular base protocol design makes them independent from overall network congestion and allows individual applications to run much faster and have reliable transaction throughput.
Another important feature of the Onigraph is its custom designed consensus protocol: Proof of Adaptive Coverage (PoAC), which is designed as an asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant DAG-based consensus mechanism that functions as a set of rules to guarantee efficient ordering of all transactions on the network. By introducing parallel transaction validation on separate application layers we enable a much larger throughput on the Onigraph. Transactions are validated for individual transaction layers before being submitted into the special subgraph that functions as the global ordering layer building a global state above all individual L1s. The random validator selection algorithm based on adaptive coverage for validator performance, allows the Onigraph to provide a fast and secure protocol. As validator performance is crucial for the network, PoAC provides the necessary incentives for validators to intrinsically perform to their best level.
The Identity State Layer (ISL) is used as a method of identifying individuals, entities, objects on the network and will act as the backbone of all identity-based applications built on the Onigraph. The ISL provides on-chain identities for every participant navigating the network and allows secure and unique identification of any tokenized type of data. ISL’s design is fully compliant with regulations and follows current standard proposals in the domain of decentralized identifiers, self-sovereign identities, and verifiable credentials. The implementation of ISL will be the introduced in future updates to the core protocol of the Onigraph.
The Onigraph also introduces a unique Privacy Enforcement Layer (PEL) that allows Developers to build applications that guarantee customizable privacy controls for users, their data, and the on-chain codebases or even host a completely private Application Layer. Powered by zero-knowledge proofs, users can define what information they share and what information they choose to keep private. This of course can not be applicable to all kinds of information and has to be respected when developing decentralized Apps.
For example, developers can build customizable privacy parameters into applications and give data-sharing control to users or make transparency a default requirement and key feature of the application itself. Applications of this type empower network participants (users) to control their identity such that they can decide for themselves, for instance, whether to keep transaction history private or make all details available through network explorers. At the same time, all data, with full KYC requirements, remains available in the event of necessity or by order of an official institution. The ONINO Team is working on building these features into the transaction layer to enable more privacy control independent from dApp developers.
The Privacy Enforcement Layer combined with the Identity State Layer, delivers an Onigraph-specific, privacy-identity framework that opens myriad new avenues and opportunities for developers to build and end-users to experience and interact with Web3 experiences.
Additional detail to further illustrate how the Onigraph enables builders and users will be presented in later blog posts as use cases and case studies.
In summary, the Onigraph is a new type of blockchain infrastructure that enables significantly more real-world applications of distributed ledger technology through a comprehensive, scalable, privacy-enabled, compliant architecture.
Its unique architecture and combination of the best of DAG and blockchain technology guarantee privacy, identity, scalability, as well as accessibility, and usability. The Onigraph's consensus protocol, Proof of Adaptive Coverage, is designed to handle high network traffic while maintaining high security guarantees. Its Identity State Layer and Privacy Enforcement Layer allow private data to be transferred securely while empowering individual network participants with data sovereignty.
Overall, the Onigraph is an innovative solution that addresses many current challenges faced by blockchain technology and has the potential to revolutionize the way all network participants interact with decentralized applications.
We have already started with it! We are recruiting companies and helping companies build their blockchain based businesses. We're focussing on "real" use cases that solve real problems and provide real value.
The companies that we support with their Tokenized Fundraising will be migrated to our network once it's live and ready to be used. This will ensure that the network starts with real projects and not as an empty hull.
That's it regarding the Onigraph - for today.
Your team ONINO